PulpFest Profile — David & Daniel Ritter & First Fandom Experience

Sep 14, 2020 by

Pulp magazines have influenced writers, artists, film directors, software developers, and countless others over the years. Our “PulpFest Profiles” focus on contemporary creators who have drawn inspiration from these rough-paper fiction magazines.



At PulpFest 2019, I discovered an extraordinary project called, First Fandom Experience. Father and son, David and Daniel Ritter, are dedicated pulp fans and collectors with a special interest in the early days of science fiction fandom. They have created a database of materials made available through their website and in several books. Their most recent release is THE EARLIEST BRADBURY, which came out in 2020 to coincide with the hundredth anniversary of Ray Bradbury’s birth. Recently, I had the chance to sit down with David and Daniel and ask them some questions about their exciting First Fandom Experience project.

Sara Light-Waller (SLW): David, you’re Editor-in-Chief of First Fandom Experience and a long-time pulp fan. Please tell us about your initial inspiration for the First Fandom Experience (FFE) project.

David Ritter:  FFE is my second adventure in publishing related to science fiction in the 1930s. The first was The Cosmos Project. You can read about it and my background with it, here. The way COSMOS came together in the early 1930s is a microcosm of the overall phenomenon of organized fandom during that decade. Once The Cosmos Project was largely complete, I continued to explore the broader arc of fan history. This led me to what’s considered the canonical narrative of early fandom: Sam Moskowitz’s THE IMMORTAL STORM. Moskowitz captured the stories of many of the key people and events of the early years from his own first-hand experience and with his distinctive perspective.

While it was all well and good to read about the clubs, publications, and gatherings that bootstrapped the science fiction industry, it was also unsatisfying, I wanted to dig into the dirt myself. So I started to seek out more of the original material created by folks who have come to be known as the “First Fans.”

Detail from the cover of COSMOS

Detail from Hannes Bok’s cover for COSMOS (1933-1934). Image courtesy of First Fandom Experience.

I’d been toying with the idea of creating a facsimile edition of COSMOS, patterned after the chapter inserts from its original publication. At the Windy City Pulp and Paper Convention in 2017, I kicked this idea around with Doug Ellis, one of the founders and organizers of the show. Doug is a prominent collector and publisher of several volumes of science fiction and pulp art. I also spoke with John L. Coker III, President and Archivist of the First Fandom organization. John has done more to preserve and honor the memories of the First Fans than anyone else through his various writing and publishing projects. He had been a contributor to The Cosmos Project, educating me and providing great material highlighting the key role of Conrad H. Ruppert and his printing press. It was John who suggested that perhaps more of the original fanzines from the early days could be brought out as facsimiles. This was the inception of First Fandom Experience.

Initially, I imagined that full facsimile runs of the key fan publications from the 1930s might be produced. Doug however, convinced me that this was impractical, if not entirely insane. Over the next few months and through many discussions, the alternate concept of a “visual history” of the period gradually formed.

At about this same time, I began to understand that anything approaching a robust visual treatment of early fandom would be a pretty massive job and that trying to do it as a part-time hobby would take many years. I suggested to my middle son, Daniel, that he quit his job and join the project full-time. When we look back in the future, I hope he thanks me for this. Time will tell.

SLW: Daniel, you’re Managing Editor of FFE, what are your thoughts about bringing old-school pulp to younger readers?

Daniel Ritter: It’s a challenge, but one I’m optimistic and enthusiastic about. Most science fiction readers my age (Millennials) are aware of the old-school “pulpiverse.” However, very few have any real familiarity with the literary content of old pulps, the history of pulps, or the history of fandom. They are familiar with big-name authors like Bradbury, Asimov, and Heinlein but younger readers have no real understanding of their works’ historical context. I have had much success engaging people my age by using these big-name authors as anchor points for unpacking the history and impact of early fandom. Certain themes also seem engaging to younger readers, such as how robots or rocket ships were imagined in the early days of science fiction. Social themes, like the relationship between science and society or how a space-bound culture ought to be structured, are particularly compelling because they are still incredibly relevant today.

Overall, I’ve found the best way to engage younger readers is to share our passion for the history of science fiction and fandom. Passion is infectious and a powerful way to introduce fandom’s history to younger readers. Especially when the stories relate to ideas and issues still relevant today.


From the FFE Instagram page, “Preparation” poem and illustration by Planet Rambler a.k.a. H.W. Lewis Jr. from 1935. Image courtesy of First Fandom Experience.

SLW: Please tell us more about your FFE team.

First Fandom Experience (FFE): We describe First Fandom Experience as a collaborative publishing project. It really does take a village to bring together all the material and historical context necessary for our work. We are fortunate to have a core team of collectors and historians as collaborators, as well as a wide network of contributors who have provided important information and materials. We have deep gratitude for all of our collaborators.

Outside of David and Daniel, our core team consists of:

  • John L. Coker III, a long-time fan, collector, historian, and President of First Fandom, whose insight and knowledge has been essential to our work
  • Sam McDonald, a collector and researcher whose ability to locate obscure material is unparalleled
  • Doug Ellis, a collector extraordinaire who has helped fill many gaps in our archive.
  • Kate Baxter, a younger fan who has helped us secure many key artifacts from the dusty basements of library collections

There are many other people who have contributed to our work in many ways — too many to list here. In no particular order again:

  • Jim Emerson, publisher of “FUTURES PAST
  • Alistair Durie, a leading fan and collector in the United Kingdom
  • Robert A. Madle, a prominent “First Fan” who just celebrated his 100th birthday
  • Jonathan Eller, Director of the Center for Ray Bradbury Studies
  • Michael Saler, Professor of History at UC Davis
FFE books

Images courtesy of First Fandom Experience

SLW: You’ve published several books in the last few years, please tell us about them.

FFE: Our first major publication was THE VISUAL HISTORY OF SCIENCE FICTION FANDOM, VOLUME ONE: THE 1930s. At over 500 pages, this was an ambitious effort to robustly cover the emergence and early development of science fiction fandom. It’s presented chronologically, touching on some pre-1930s activity but really taking foot in 1930. It is capped off with the 1939 Worldcon. This volume showcases our overall goals: telling the story of fandom through artifacts and materials produced by fans during this decade. It also includes several original, documentary-style comic sections, which bring to life key stories from the history.

THE EARLIEST BRADBURY is our second major publication. This volume is an exploration and celebration of Ray Bradbury’s earliest writings as a science fiction fan. It was produced in the same spirit as THE VISUAL HISTORY. We focus on the actual historical artifacts produced by Bradbury and his peers and present them in full facsimile form.

We’ve also published a full facsimile reproduction of the seminal fanzine SCIENCE FICTION DIGEST — later named FANTASY MAGAZINE — along with the serial novel COSMOS, that was originally published in its pages.

In the future, we hope to publish a collection of early fan art, and we have been discussing volume two of THE VISUAL HISTORY, which would cover the early 1940s.

SLW: In THE VISUAL HISTORY OF SCIENCE FICTION FANDOM you credit pulp collector, Robert A. Madle, as being a seminal part of FFE. Can you tell us more about that?

FFE: Among many other places, our quest for a comprehensive view of early fan history led us to the basement of Robert A. Madle in Rockville, Maryland. Bob was a prominent fan in the Philadelphia area beginning in the early 1930s and has since become a legendary collector and dealer in the field. I’m honored that he entrusted us to give a good home to his original copies of THE PLANET and THE TIME TRAVELER, seminal early fan publications without which any coverage of this era would be sorely incomplete. We’ve compiled a tribute to Bob’s seminal role in fandom on our website.

Madle letter

Image courtesy of First Fandom Experience

SLW: Your books and website are virtual cornucopias of rare information from the early days of science fiction fandom. Who are your favorite figures from those early days?

FFE: We often joke that if you were a young science fiction fan in the 1930s, you were a “Moskowitz person” or a “Wollheim person.” We both think we would be Wollheim people. His passion, idealism, and his bold vision of the role that science fiction fans could play in the world speaks to us even now. Wollheim was also surrounded by a crowd of interesting people like John B. Michel and Frederik Pohl, whose antics could spawn a sitcom. If we were teenagers in the late 1930s, I suspect we would have found ourselves attending meetings of the Futurians.

Cyril M. Kornbluth was a figure who is incredibly interesting to us. He is remembered by many of his peers as someone who always spoke his mind. Accounts from people like Damon Knight and Isaac Asimov describe stories like how he decided to read the entire encyclopedia, in order from A to Z. One account from Pohl suggests he never brushed his teeth. Others describe that when they first met, Kornbluth would punch them in the stomach — apparently as a way to make the meeting memorable.

The young Bradbury is another character who is almost larger than life. Charming, witty, and funny, his endearing voice on the page seems an honest reflection of his personality.

SLW: What would you like readers to get out of FFE books and your website?

FFE: We want to give people a visceral sense of what it was like to be one of the first fans of science fiction. The 1930s and early 1940s were an incredible period. Science fiction as a genre was born during that time. Fans, writers, artists, and editors defined and developed the science fiction genre over the following decades. Their impact is seen today in the community and genre we know and love.

he World Science Fiction convention program, 1939

The 1939 World Science Fiction convention program, with masthead by Frank R. Paul. Image courtesy of First Fandom Experience.

We want to share this history, bringing it to life so readers can understand and appreciate the origins and impact of the early fans. We hope to add depth and flavor to readers’ appreciation of both modern science fiction literature and community.

SLW: Who do you think is your largest audience — collectors, readers, others?

FFE: Collectors — and it’s probably fair to call most collectors historians — seem to be our largest audience. Our work is primarily historical and contains lots of facsimile reproductions of rare or obscure material. So it speaks loudest to those who already treasure this kind of material.

SLW: Ultimately, what’s your goal for FFE?

FFE: We hope to preserve the history and impact of early fandom. We believe this history is both interesting and important. The story of fandom speaks to the importance of imagination as a survival skill and a catalyst for change. What we can imagine, we can create — both good and bad. The infectious energy of fans who embrace and promote the possible gives us hope for the future. We want to ensure that their story remains a treasured part of the collective consciousness of the science fiction community.

SLW: Is there anything else you’d like to mention today?

FFE: We really appreciate the conversation! The annual PulpFest is a key part of the origin story for First Fandom Experience, and we look forward to our next chance to get together with our fellow fans.

Many thanks to David and Daniel Ritter for this great conversation. If you’d like to find out more about the First Fandom Experience project please stop by their website, follow them on Twitter (@FirstFandomExp), Instagram (firstfandomexperience) or subscribe to their blog. Their books can be purchased through their website or digitally through Amazon.

(A professional journalist and illustrator with over thirty years of experience, Sara Light-Waller is an accomplished new-pulp fiction author/illustrator with two books out and more on the way. She is also the winner of the 2020 Cosmos Prize for her illustrated short story, “Battle at Neptune.” A huge pulp fan, Sara is especially fond of science fiction pulps. The extent of her pulp fandom can best be measured by the oversized rendition of Frank R. Paul’s AMAZING STORIES cover that she painted on her garage. Sara is a member of the PulpFest organizing committee, a regular contributor to our homepage and THE PULPSTER, and often reads for PulpFest‘s “New Fictioneers.”)

The Earliest Bradbury

Jul 6, 2020 by

An Exploration and Celebration of Ray Bradbury’s Earliest Writings as a Science Fiction Fan


Ray Bradbury is an author who inspires fanaticism in his readers. A virtuoso composer with language, he sang the bodies electric and human, blending science fiction with eerie horror and mysticism to create stories that have stood the test of time. Today, he is perhaps the most revered of the science fiction Grand Masters of the 20th century. Among his fans are countless “completists,” who have made it a mission to absorb as much of his work as possible. We at First Fandom Experience are proud to fall into this camp.

Bradbury’s work is, as the saying goes, part of the furniture of our minds. But at some point in our pursuit of finding every word written by Ray Bradbury, we tripped and fell down a rabbit hole. We wanted to access the time before Bradbury was a grandmaster; the time before he was a professional author. We wanted to explore the period when he was an amateur writer, testing the waters and honing his craft.

So, we began digging. Some of Bradbury’s pre-professional work, like FUTURIA FANTASIA — the fanzine he published in 1939 and 1940 — is well known. Bradbury published his own facsimile edition of the fanzine with Michael Graham and Craig Graham in 2007. But much of his other amateur work is obscure and unavailable to most readers, existing only in the archives of fanatical collectors or in special library collections. It has been our pleasure to locate these artifacts and compile them in full facsimile format in our new collection, THE EARLIEST BRADBURY.

To be clear, Bradbury entered the ranks of professional authors at a young age. Born in 1920, Bradbury entered organized science fiction fandom, formally, in October 1937, when he joined the Los Angeles Science Fiction League (LASFL). He sold his first story, “The Pendulum” (a collaboration with Henry Hasse), in August 1941. He received payment for the story on August 22, his 21st birthday. This period from 1937 to 1941 — from his entry into fandom to the publication of his first professional story — is the time we explore in THE EARLIEST BRADBURY.

Ray Bradbury’s early writing is everything one might expect to see from a young amateur destined for mastery. Many of his early articles, written under pseudonyms like “Kno Knuth Ing and D. Lerium Tremaine,” were silly and satirical, packed with puns and bad jokes, and shining examples of the kind of juvenalia that filled the pages of many fanzines of the time. Bradbury’s penchant for puns, sharp wit, and love of humor quickly earned him the title of the “funny man” of the LASFL.

But even as an amateur, we see glimpses of what Bradbury would become as an author. His talent with language is clear, not only in the delightful deployment of puns and wit in his humor pieces but in powerfully evocative phrases that pepper his early fiction. The iconic poetic style and otherworldly themes that would define much of his later work began to take shape in his early years as a young fan in the LASFL.

Bradbury became deeply entrenched in the Los Angeles science fiction community. Through it, he met many of the people who would help him on the road to a professional career. It was at the 100th meeting of the LASFL in August 1939 that Bradbury met Robert Heinlein, who had a profound impact on Bradbury’s career. Forrest J Ackerman edited IMAGINATION! — the first fanzine Bradbury wrote for — and famously lent Bradbury $50 so that he could attend the 1939 WorldCon. It was at WorldCon that Bradbury met Julius Schwartz, who would later sell Bradbury’s first story.

For a Bradbury fanatic, the story of his early years as an amateur fan and writer is a fascinating prequel to his long professional career. It reveals a relentlessly jovial, if juvenile, writer pursuing mastery of a craft he deeply and authentically loved. It brings light to the many influences that shaped him and provides insight into a community of science fiction fans that produced not just Bradbury the Grand Master, but many others who went on to define the genre for decades.

As Bradbury fanatics, we hope to honor and celebrate Ray Bradbury’s legacy by exploring his earliest contributions to fandom. THE EARLIEST BRADBURY combines original artifacts with historical commentary to bring this story to life.

(PulpFest is pleased to welcome father and son, David and Daniel Ritter, as guest writers to our website. David is the Editor-in-Chief of First Fandom Experience, while Daniel serves as the organization’s Managing Editor. First Fandom Experience attempts to generate a more direct and visceral sense of what it would have been like to be an early science fiction fan, striving to preserve an essential part of cultural history in both letter and spirit.

We’d like to thank David and Daniel for their contribution to our celebration of the centennial of Ray Bradbury’s birth. Planned as one of the themes for this year’s PulpFest, we’ll continue our salute to the “Poet of the Pulps” in the pages of our annual program book, THE PULPSTER. Watch for further details about this very special issue, right here, later this month.

THE EARLIEST BRADBURY — featuring cover art by Overstreet Hall of Fame member, Mark Wheatley — is now available from First Fandom Experience for $125, postage paid. Please visit their website for further details.)

PulpFest Historical — Sam Moskowitz, Superfan

Jun 29, 2020 by

Hugo Award-winning science fiction historian and anthologist Sam Moskowitz was born 100 years ago on June 30, 1920. Best remembered in pulp circles for his definitive history of the early Munsey pulp magazines, UNDER THE MOONS OF MARS: A HISTORY AND ANTHOLOGY OF “THE SCIENTIFIC ROMANCE” IN THE MUNSEY MAGAZINES, 1912-1920, and for his pair of biographical studies of pulp science fiction authors, EXPLORERS OF THE INFINITE: SHAPERS OF SCIENCE FICTION and SEEKERS OF TOMORROW: MASTERS OF MODERN SCIENCE FICTION, Moskowitz also authored a detailed history of early science fiction fandom, THE IMMORTAL STORM: A HISTORY OF SCIENCE FICTION FANDOM

A sometimes controversial figure, he proved to be a prolific editor with over 60 books to his name, principally anthologies and collections. Notable among his many credits, Moskowitz also served as editor of Hugo Gernsback’s final foray into the genre with SCIENCE-FICTION PLUS (1952-1954) and, two decades later, filled the same role for Leo Margulies on the revived WEIRD TALES (1973-1974).

Having established himself as an authority in his field, Moskowitz taught the very first college course on science fiction in 1953. An avid collector with more than 40,000 books and magazines in his collection, he was gifted with a near-photographic memory that he put to good use. He was inducted into the New Jersey Literary Hall of Fame in 1987. Sam Moskowitz died of a heart attack on April 15, 1997 at age 76. The First Fandom Sam Moskowitz Archive Award for excellence in science fiction collecting was established in his memory in 1998.

(In addition to his many contributions to science fiction and pulp scholarship, Sam Moskowitz was a pulp writer “back in the day.” In 1941, he published three stories in the science fiction pulps. His first tale appeared in COMET, followed by two in PLANET STORIES. His short story, “World of Mockery,” ran in the Summer 1941 PLANET STORIES,  featuring a cover painting by Virgil Finlay. Also appearing in the same issue was Leigh Brackett’s “The Dragon-Queen of Jupiter.” It was her second appearance in the Fiction House magazine and garnered her top billing on the magazine’s cover. She would sell many more to PLANET in the coming years, including one for the pulp’s final issue.

If you’d like to learn more about First Fandom, please join us in September for Sara Light-Waller’s visit with David and Daniel Ritter of First Fandom Experience. It’s the first of our “PulpFest Profiles,” a new series on today’s “Children of the Pulps.”)

Science Fiction: To What Purpose?

May 22, 2020 by

In 1911, when Hugo Gernsback introduced what he at first termed “scientific fiction,” it was his hope that these stories would stimulate his readers’ imaginations, leading to scientific progress and a better world. In the April 1916 issue of THE ELECTRICAL EXPERIMENTER, Gernsback wrote:

A world without imagination is a poor place to live in. No real electrical experimenter, worthy of the name, will ever amount to much if he has no imagination. He must be visionary to a certain extent, he must be able to look into the future and . . . he must anticipate the human wants. . . . Imagination more than anything else makes the world go round. If we succeed in speeding it up ever so little our mission has been fulfilled.

When he introduced AMAZING STORIES ten years later, Hugo Gernsback seemed to have changed his tune. In an editorial appearing in the magazine’s first issue — dated April 1926 — Gernsback wrote:

“By ‘scientifiction’ I mean the Jules Verne, H. G. Wells, and Edgar Allan Poe type story — a charming romance intermingled with scientific fact and prophetic vision.”

The names displayed on the covers of the early AMAZING STORIES — Edgar Rice Burroughs, Murray Leinster, A. Merritt, Edgar Allan Poe, Garrett P. Serviss, Jules Verne, H. G. Wells, and others — likewise indicated that Gernsback’s vision had evolved. He had learned that his “readers wanted more than instructive fiction. They wanted to be entertained, to escape, to experience that sense of wonder that good visionary fiction brought.”

The question that Hugo Gernsback asked through his magazines, early science fiction fandom grappled with both vocally and in print:

What is the purpose of science fiction?

Some believed it was to teach science and inspire scientists; others believed it was to offer adventurism and escape from reality; still others believed it was to envision a better future for all.

Discussions around this question are at the core of the science fiction genre’s history.  On Thursday, August 6, PulpFest 2020 will welcome David and Daniel Ritter of First Fandom Experience for an exploration of the conversation concerning science fiction’s purpose during the early years of organized fandom.

Beginning in the late 1920s and coursing through the 1939 WorldCon and beyond, First Fandom Experience will examine Hugo Gernsback and science fiction as a teaching device; the emergence of “thought experiments” as a sub-genre; the “escapist” camp of science fiction fandom; Michelism and the infamous 1937 “Mutation or Death” speech written by Jon B. Michel and delivered by Donald A. Wollheim; activism in early science fiction fandom; the Technocracy Movement and the Los Angeles fan scene, including a young fan by the name of Ray Bradbury; and how all these things relate to the idea of creating the future.

So please join us for PulpFest 2020 from August 6 through August 9 at the DoubleTree by Hilton Hotel Pittsburgh – Cranberry in Mars, Pennsylvania for “Science Fiction: To What Purpose?”

(If you were born between 1945 and 1960 and are a science fiction fan, your first introduction to the genre likely came from reading one of the masters who began their work in the 1930s — Asimov, Bradbury, Campbell, Clarke, Smith. All of these great writers began their work as fans. What had these authors experienced that shaped their visions? What would it have been like to know them when they were first discovering speculative fiction and others who loved it? These questions inspired David Ritter to start First Fandom Experience. For the organization’s Editor-in-Chief, born in 1960, this project has been a way to better understand the origin story of his own origin as a fan.

As a millennial, Daniel Ritter — the Managing Editor of First Fandom Experience — was exposed to science fiction through the hand-me-downs of older readers and fans, like his father. Daniel’s childhood bookcase was packed with well-read copies of books that were published before he was born. The foundation of his love for science fiction was born from the pages of these books. Daniel has spent his entire life swimming in the ocean of the genre, and he is now privileged to study the very early days of science fiction.

The Science Fiction League was one of the earliest associations formed by science fiction fans. It was created by Charles D. Hornig and Hugo Gernsback in February 1934 in the pages of WONDER STORIES. The League — which eventually grew to about 1,000 members — lasted about ten years. Its emblem — designed by Frank R. Paul — was first published in the April 1934 issue of WONDER STORIES.

For a look at our entire programming schedule, please click the Programming button below the PulpFest banner on our home page.)